Integrative Levels Classification project ILC2 schedules developing schedules how it works people references

References on classification by integrative levels

The most important papers are in bold. Please notify us any relevant reference of which you are aware!

philosophical and scientific sources ; works by CRG members ; comments to CRG work ; contributions of the present project ; references to the present project

Philosophical and scientific sources

Focusing on the series of levels; writings on emergence are many, and only the most relevant are listed

[Abl39]  The theory of emergence / Reuben Ablowitz = Philosophy of science. 6 : 1939. 1. P 1-16 » E:CO : Emergence: complexity & organization. 12 : 2010. 3. P 133-154 / Jeffrey Goldstein : ed'
[a balanced review of theorists and discussions]

[Ale20]  Space, time and deity / Samuel Alexander – 1920 » # 2 – London : 1927

[Ale21]  Spinoza and time / Samuel Alexander – 1921

[And72]  More is different : broken symmetry and the nature of the hierarchical structure of science / PW Anderson = Science. 177 : 1972. 4047. P 393-396

[Bai07]  Categorical ontology of emergent complexity levels and spacetime: life, consciousness and human societies / Ion C Baianu : ed ; IC Baianu, R Brown, JF Glazebrook : papers = Axiomathes. 17 : 2007. n 3-4

[Bar04]  A mathematical theory of strong emergence using multiscale variety / Yaneer Bar-Yam = Complexity. 9: 2004. 6. P 15-24

[Bec92]  Emergence or reduction? : prospects for nonreductive physicalism / A Beckermann, H Flohr, Jaegwon Kim : eds --De Gruyter : New York : 1992

[Bed97]  Weak emergence / MA Bedau = Philosophical perspectives. 11: 1997. P 375-399

[Bed02]  Downward causation and the autonomy of weak emergence / MA Bedau = Principia. 6: 2002. Special issue on Emergences and downward causation. P 5-50 –

[Ben87]  Dissipation, information, computational complexity and the definition of organization / Charles H Bennett = Emerging syntheses in science. P 215-231 / David Pines : editor – Addison-Wesley : Boston : 1987 || – IBM <> [PDF format]

[Ben88]  Logical depth and physical complexity / Charles H Bennett = The universal Turing machine : a half-century survey. P 227-257 / Rolf Herken : ed – Oxford university press : 1988 || – IBM <> [PDF format]

[Ber68]   General system theory : foundations, development, applications / Ludwig von Bertalanffy – Braziller : New York : 1968 « revised edition – 1976

[Blis29]  The organization of knowledge and the system of the sciences / Henry Evelyn Bliss – Holt : New York : 1929

[Blis33]  The organisation of knowledge in libraries / Henry Evelyn Bliss – Wilson : New York : 1933 » E 2 : The organisation of knowledge in libraries and the subject approach to books – Wilson : New York : 1939

[Blit85]  Evolution, emergence, and mind : MA thesis / David Blitz ; "McGill university" : 1985.

[Blit88]  Emergent evolution : the problem of qualitative novelty in the evolutionary process : PhD thesis / David Blitz ; "McGill university" : 1988

[Blit90]  Emergent evolution and the level structure of reality / David Blitz = Studies on Mario Bunge's "Treatise". P 153-169 / Paul Weingartner, George JW Dorn : ed – Rodopi : Amsterdam, Atlanta : 1990

[Blit92]  Emergent evolution : qualitative novelty and the levels of reality / David Blitz – Kluwer : Dordrecht, Boston, London : 1992

[Bona95]  Characterizing emergent phenomena. 1: A critical review ; 2: A conceptual framework / Eric Bonabeau, Jean-Louis Dessalles, Alain Grumbach = Revue internationale de systémique. 9: 1995. 3. P 327-346, 347-371 – <>

[Bonn64]  Contemplation de la nature / Charles Bonnet – Amsterdam : 1764-1765
[speculates that all the beings in nature form a gradual scale rising from lowest to highest, without any break in its continuity]

[Broa25]  The mind and its place in nature / CD Broad – Routledge & Kegan Paul : New York, London : 1925

[Broo21]  Levels of organization in the biological sciences / Daniel S Brooks, James DiFrisco, William C Wimsatt: ed' – MIT Press : Cambridge (MA) : 2021

[Brow26]  A materialist's view of the concept of levels / Harold Chapman Brown = Journal of philosophy. 23: 1926. 5. P 113-120 » (JSTOR) – <>
[critically discusses Alexander, Lloyd Morgan, and Conger in a reductionist way]

[Bun60a]  Levels : a semantic preliminary / Mario Bunge = Review of metaphysics. 13 : 1960. P 396-406

[Bun60b]  On the connections among levels / Mario Bunge = International congress on philosophy. 12: proceedings. 6. P 63-70

[Bun73]  The metaphysics, epistemology and methodology of levels = Method, model and matter. Chapter 9: P 160-168 / Mario Bunge – Springer : Dordrecht : 1973

[Bun77]  Levels and reduction / Mario Bunge = American journal of physiology. 233 : 1977. R3. P 75-82

[Bun79]  Ontology 2: A world of systems = Treatise on basic philosophy. 4 / Mario Bunge – Reidel : Dordrecht, Boston, London : 1979

[Bun01]  Emergence and convergence : qualitative novelty and the unity of knowledge / Mario Augusto Bunge – University of Toronto press : 2003

[Cam74]  "Downward causation" in hierarchically organized biological systems / Donald T Campbell = (Studies in the philosophy of biology : reductionism and related problems / Francisco Ayala, Theodosius Dobzhansky – University of California press : Berkeley : 1974)

[Cam90]  Levels of organization, downward causation, and the selection-theory approach to evolutionary epistemology / Donald T Campbell = Theories of the evolution of knowing. P 1-17 / G Greenberg, E Tobach : ed – Erlbaum : Hillsdale : 1990

[Chai00]  Cosmic evolution : the rise of complexity in nature / Eric J Chaisson – Harvard university press : Cambridge (MA) : 2000

[Chal02]  Varieties of emergence / David J Chalmers = (Workshop on emergence : Granada : 2002.08 / "Templeton foundation") – <> : 2002-

[Cla06]   The re-emergence of emergence : the emergentist hypothesis from science to religion / Philip Clayton, Paul Davies : eds – Oxford university press : Oxford : 2006

[Con21]  Evolution and epitomization / George P Conger = Monist. 21 : 1921. P 536-584

[Con25]  The doctrine of levels / George P Conger = Journal of philosophy. 22: 1925. 12. P 309-321 » (JSTOR) – <>
[develops on Alexander, Lloyd Morgan, Sellars, and Spaulding]

[Con26]  What are the criteria of levels / George P Conger = Journal of philosophy. 23 : 1926. P 589-598

[Con28]  A hypothesis of realms / George P Conger = Journal of philosophy. 25 : 1928. P 205-217

[Con29]   New views of evolution / George Perrigo Conger – Macmillan: New York : 1929 » (Internet archive. Universal library) – <>

[Con31]  A world of epitomizations : a study in the philosophy of the sciences / George Perrigo Conger – Princeton UP : Princeton ; Milford : London : 1931 » Synoptic naturalism – University of Minnesota : Minneapolis : 1960
[claims that the resemblance of structures and processes throughout the levels and their realms (matter, life, mind) indicate that the universe is a series of "epitomizations" and "cumulative coordinations", that is, levels are parallel]

[Con33]  Epitomization and epistemology / George P Conger = Monist. 33 : 1933. P 73-87

[Cor05]  Holistic Darwinism : synergy, cybernetics, and the bioeconomics of evolution / Peter A Corning – University of Chicago press : Chicago : 2005

[Cor06]  The re-emergence of emergence : a venerable concept in search of a theory / Peter A Corning = Complexity. 7 : 2002. 6. P 18-30 – <>
[from the abstract: ... briefly recounts the history of the term and details some of its current usages ... In order to answer the "why" question, a broader, multi-leveled paradigm is required. The reductionist approach to explaining emergent complexity has entailed a search for underlying "laws of emergence." Another alternative is the "Synergism Hypothesis" ... This theory, in a nutshell, proposes that the synergistic (co-operative) effects produced by various combinations of parts have played a major causal role in the evolution of biological complexity. ... there are many different kinds of synergy, but not all synergies represent emergent phenomena.]

[Cor18]  Synergistic selection / Peter A Corning – World Scientific : 2018

[Cun01]  The reemergence of "emergence" / B Cunningham = Philosophy of science. 68: 2001. P S62-S75

[Dav87]  The cosmic blueprint / Paul Davies – Heinemann : 1987 » – Simon & Schuster : 1988 » revised edition – Templeton foundation press : 2004

[Dav04]  Emergent biological principles and the computational properties of the universe / Paul CW Davies = Complexity. 10: 2004. 2. P 11?15 || (Arxiv. Astrophysics) – <>

[Dur1899]  Aperçus de taxinomie générale / Joseph-Pierre Durand de Gros – Alcan : Paris : 1899
[argues that the elementary form of classification is the series; basic principles of order are resemblance, composition, hierarchy, and geneaology-evolution; a natural classification should combine generic with genealogical; information taken from review / Bernard Bosanquet = Mind. NS. 8: 1899. P 531-535]

[Emm97]  Explaining emergence : towards an ontology of levels / Claus Emmeche, Simo Køppe, Frederik Stjernfelt = Journal for general philosophy of science. 28 : 1997. P 83-119 | – Niels Bohr institute : <>

[Eng25]  Dialektik der Natur / Friedrich Engels : 1873-1886 – Moscow : 1925

[Fei51]  The graded series of integrative levels = Ontology. 3.3 : p 332-356 / James K Feibleman – Johns Hopkins press : Baltimore : 1951

[Fei54]  Theory of integrative levels / James K Feibleman = British journal for the philosophy of science. 5: 1954. 17. P 59-66 » (JSTOR) – <> » Theory of subject analysis. P 136-142 / Lois Mai Chan, ' : ed – Libraries unlimited : Littleton : 1985

[Fei65]  The integrative levels in nature [revised version of Fei54] = Focus on information and communication. P 27-41 / Barbara RF Kyle : ed – ASLIB : London : 1965

[Fle96]  Emergent information : towards a unified information theory / Peter Fleissner, Wolfgang Hofkirchner = BioSystems. 38 : 1996. P 243-248

[Fro04]  The emergence of complexity / Jochen Fromm – Kassel university press : <> : 2004

[Fro05a]  Types and forms of emergence / Jochen Fromm = (Arxiv. Nonlinear sciences. Adaptation and self-organizing systems) <> : 2005
[proposes a taxonomy of four kinds of emergence; suggests that strong emergence occurs where new replicators appear, starting new forms of evolutions, which are not implied in simple combinations of a set of building blocks, like genes or memes, because the number of their possibilities is greater than the information processing capacity of the universe [Dav04] (so that other mechanisms become relevant such as evolution by selection)]

[Fro05b]  Ten questions about emergence / Jochen Fromm = (ArXiv. Nonlinear sciences. Adaptation and self-organizing systems) – <> : 2005

[Fuc05]  The dialectic of bottom-up and top-down emergence in social systems / Christian Fuchs, Wolfgang Hofkirchner = Triple C. 3: 2005. 2. P 28-50 || <

[Fuc07]  The dialectic of bottom-up and top-down emergence in social systems / Christian Fuchs, Wolfgang Hofkirchner, Bert Klauninger = (Problems of individual emergence : proceedings of a conference held in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 16-20 April, 2001 / G de Zeeuw, M Vahl, E Mennuti : ed') = Systemica. 14 : 2007. 1-6. P 127-150 || UTI < : 2010

[Ger42]  Higher levels of integration / RW Gerard = (Red42)

[Ger45]  Extrapolation from the biological to the social / RW Gerard, Alfred E Emerson = Science. 101. 2632. P 582-585

[Gla55]  _ / Louis Glangeaud = Revue générale des sciences. 62 : 1955. 5-6. P _
[classifies the sciences of matter and their methods by levels, reported in Gro61 p 101]

[Gol99]  Emergence as a construct : history and issues / Jeffrey Goldstein = E:CO : Emergence: complexity and organization. 1 : 1999. P 49-72

[Gol02]  The singular nature of emergent levels : suggestions for a theory of emergence / Jeffrey Goldstein = Nonlinear dynamics, psychology, and life sciences. 6: 2002. 4. P 293-309

[Gre84]   Behavioral evolution and integrative levels / Gary Greenberg, Ethel Tobach : eds = The TC Schneirla conferences series. 1 – Erlbaum : Hillsdale (New Jersey), London : 1984
(( The significance of TC Schneirla's contribution to the concept of levels of integration / Ethel Tobach, Gary Greenberg ; TC Schneirla and the integrity of behavioral sciences / Gerard Piel ; Neglected aspects of the evolution of American comparative and animal psychology / Thomas C Cadwallader ; TC Schneirla's impact on comparative psychology / Gary Greenberg ; Levels of integration and organization: a reevaluation of the evolutionary scale / Lester R Aronson ; '))

[Gre88]   Evolution of social behavior and integrative levels / Gary Greenberg, E Tobach : ed – Erlbaum : New York : 1988

[Har40]  Die Aufbau der realen Welt : Grundriss der allgemeinen Kategorienlehre / Nicolai Hartmann – De Gruyter : Berlin : 1940

[Har42]  Neue Wege der Ontologie / Nicolai Hartmann – Berlin : 1942 || Systematische Philosophie. / Nicolai Hartmann : ed – Kohlhammer : Stuttgart : 1943 » New ways of ontology – Greenwood press : Westport : 1952

[Hei42]  Philosophie : le manuscrit de 1942 / Werner Heisenberg ; C Chevalley : transl' from German, introduction – Seuil : Paris : 1998
[discussed in Nic06; listed as Ordnung der Wirklichkeit in W Blum, HP Dürr, H Rechenberg eds., Werner Heisenberg: Gesammelte Werke = Collected works. C.1, Piper, München, 1984]

[Heil03]  Levels of reality / John Heil = Ratio. NS. 16 : 2003. 205-221
[argues "that the motivation for levels stems from an implicit acceptance of a Picture Theory of language according to which we can 'read off' features of the world from ways we describe the world. Abandonment of the Picture Theory opens the way to a 'no levels' conception of reality, a conception that honors anti-reductionist sentiments and preserves the status of the special sciences without the ontological baggage".]

[Herre]  Formal ontology of levels of reality / Heinrich Herre, Roberto Poli – in preparation

[Herri49]  A biological survey of integrative levels / C Judson Herrick = (Philosophy of the future : the quest of modern materialism / RW Sellars, VJ McGill, Marvin Farber : ed – Macmillan : New York : 1949)

[Hid15]  Why information grows : the evolution of order, from atoms to economies / César Hidalgo — Basic Books : New York : 2015

[Hob1901]  The mind in evolution / LT Hobhouse – Macmillan : 1901

[Hol98]  Emergence / JH Holland – Helix : Reading (Mass') : 1998

[Hof09]  A unified theory of information : an outline : 20 questions for a Colloquium BITae : can a unified information approach be achieved? / Wolfgang Hofkirchner — <> : 2009-

[Hof12]  Emergent information : an outline unified theory of information framework / Wolfgang Hofkirchner — World Scientific : 2012

[Hum96]  Aspects of emergence / Paul Humphreys = Philosophical topics. 24: 1996. 1. P 53-70

[Hum97a]  How properties emerge / Paul Humphreys = Philosophy of science. 64: 1997. 1. P 1-17

[Hum97b]  Emergence, not supervenience / Paul Humphreys = Philosophy of science. 64. 4. Supplement: Proceedings of the 1996 biennial meetings of the PSA. 2. P S337-S345

[Hux47]  Evolution and ethics : 1893-1943 / Julian Huxley, Thomas Henry Huxley – Pilot press : London : 1947

[Jac70]  L'intégron = P 320-345 (La logique du vivant / François Jacob – Gallimard : Paris : 1970 » The Logic of life : a history of heredity – Pantheon books : 1974)

[Jan80]  Self-organizing universe : scientific and human implications / Erich Jantsch – Pergamon press : 1980

[Jen27]  Diverse doctrines of evolution, their relation to the practice of science and of life / HS Jennings = Science. 65 : 1927. P 19-25

[Joh01]  Emergence : the connected lives of ants, brains, cities, and software / Steven Johnson – Scribner : New York : 2001

[Jua08]  Emergence, complexity and self-organization : precursors and prototypes / Alicia Juarrero, Carl A Rubino : eds = Exploring complexity. 4 – ISCE : Goodyear (AZ) : 2008 || [contents and introduction]
["... This book presents a series of essays by thinkers who anticipated the significance of those issues and laid the foundations for their current importance. Readers of this book will encounter the important and varied figures of Immanuel Kant, John Stuart Mill, Charles Saunders Peirce, Henry Poincaré, Henri Bergson, Alfred North Whitehead, and the British "Emergentists" Samuel Alexander, C. Lloyd Morgan, and C. D. Broad. They will also find essays by the South African thinker and statesman Jan Smuts, the American philosopher Arthur Lovejoy, the eminent physicist Erwin Schr?dinger, two more recent thinkers on emergence, P. E. Meehl and Wilfred Sellars, and Ludwig von Bertalanffy, one of the founders of General Systems Theory. In their detailed and comprehensive introduction to the collection, editors Alicia Juarrero and Carl A. Rubino set the essays in contexts stretching from Heraclitus, Parmenides, Plato, Aristotle, and Hegel to some of the religious, scientific, and philosophical challenges we face today."]

[Ked61]   Klassifikatsiia nauk [= The classification of the sciences]. V 1-3 / Bonifatii Mikhailovich Kedrov — _ : Moscow : 1961-1985
[advocates an evolutionary order of the sciences in the framework of dialectical materialism]

[Kle14a]  From linearity to co-evolution : on the architecture of Nicolai Hartmann's levels of reality / Michael Kleineberg = New research on the philosophy of Nicolai Hartmann. P 81-108 / Roberto Poli, Keith Peterson : eds' – De Gruyter : 2016

[Kle14b]  Integrative levels of knowing: an organizing principle for the epistemological dimension / Michael Kleineberg = Knowledge organization in the 21st century : between historical patterns and future prospects : proceedings of the Thirteenth International ISKO Conference (Kraków, Poland, May 19-22, 2014). P 80-87 / Wiesław Babik : ed' – Ergon : Würzburg : 2014

[Lei1702]  [letter to Varignon] / Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz : 1702

[Lew1875]  Problems of life and mind. 1: The foundations of a creed. 2 / George H Lewes   University of Michigan library : 1875

[Llo23]  Emergent evolution / Conwy Lloyd Morgan – Williams and Norgate : London : 1923 » – Templeton foundation press <>

[Llo25a]  Life, mind, and spirit / Conwy Lloyd Morgan– Holt : New York : 1925 » Williams and Norgate : London : 1926

[Llo25b]  Naturalisme et vie / Conwy Lloyd Morgan = Scientia. 1925. _

[Llo33]  The emergence of novelty / Conwy Lloyd Morgan – Holt : New York | London : 1933

[Lor73]  Die Rückseite des Spiegels : Versuch einer Naturgeschichte menschlichen Erkennens / Konrad Lorenz – Piper : München : 1973 » Behind the mirror : a search for a natural history of human knowledge – Methuen : London ; Jovanovich : Harcourt Brace : 1976

[Lor81]  Leben ist Lernen / Konrad Lorenz ; Franz Kreuzer : interviewer – Piper : München : 1981

[Lov24]  The discontinuities of evolution / Arthur O Lovejoy = University of California publications in philosophy. 5 – University of California : _ : 1924

[Lov27]  The meanings of "emergence" and its modes / Arthur O Lovejoy = Journal of philosophical studies. 2 : 1927. 6. P 167-181

[Low05]  Ontological dependence / E Jonathan Lowe = (Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy) – <>

[Mac1_]  Emergence and causation / Cynthia Mcdonald & Graham Mcdonald : ed' — 201_

[Mar1912]  A first book in metaphysics / Walter T Marvin – Macmillan : New York : 1912
[lists the logical-mathematical, physical, biological, mental, human and social strata (P 143-144)]

[Mat08]  Understanding levels : redefining science in an emergentist world view / William Mathews = (Subject, self, and soul : transdisciplinary approaches to personhood : Madrid : July 13?17, 2008) – Metanexus institute : <>

[May82]  The growth of biological thought : diversity, evolution, and inheritance / Ernst Mayr – Harvard university press. Belknap press : Cambridge (Mass'), London : 1982

[McL92]  The rise and fall of British emergentism / BP McLaughlin = Bec92. P 49-93

[McS16]  Three trends in the history of life: an evolutionary syndrome / Daniel W McShea = Evolutionary biology. 43: 2016. 4. 531-542
["The history of life seems to be characterized by three large-scale trends in complexity: (1) the rise in complexity in the sense of hierarchy, in other words, an increase in the number of levels of organization within organisms; (2) the increase in complexity in the sense of differentiation [...] and (3) a downward trend, the loss of differentiation at the lowest levels in organisms [...]"]

[Med74]  A geometric model of reduction and emergence / Peter Medawar = (Studies in the philosophy of biology : reductionism and related problems / Francisco Ayala, Theodosius Dobzhansky – University of California press : Berkeley : 1974)

[Mee56]  The concept of emergence / PE Meehl, Wilfrid Sellars = (Minnesota studies in the philosophy of science. 1 / Herbert Feigl, Michael Scriven : ed – University of Minnesota press : Minneapolis : 1956)

[Mil78]  Living systems / James Grier Miller – McGraw-Hill : New York : 1978
[provides a detailed look at a number of systems in order of increasing size, and identifies his subsystems in each; considers living systems as a subset of all systems; below the level of living systems, defines space and time, matter and energy, information and entropy, levels of organization, and physical and conceptual factors, and above living systems ecological, planetary and solar systems, galaxies, etc. (Wikipedia)]

[Mon29]  A materialistic theory of emergent evolution / William Pepperel Montague = Essays in honour of John Dewey. P 257-273 / Felix Adler, EA Ames, _ : ed – Holt : New York :1929

[Mor02]  The emergence of everything / HJ Morowitz – Oxford university press : Oxford : 2002

[Mou86]  Quality, structure and emergence in later pre-socratic philosophy / A Mourelatos = Proceedings of the Boston area colloquium in ancient philosophy. P 127-194 / J Cleary: ed – Lanham (NY) : 1986

[Nee36]  Order and life / Joseph Needham – Cambridge University Press : Cambridge : 1936
[according to Sha98, "one of the best expositions of modern ideas of biological order and levels of organization"]

[Nee37]  Integrative levels: a revaluation of the idea of progress / Joseph Needham = Herbert Spencer lecture. 1937 : Oxford University » Time: the refreshing river : essays and addresses, 1932-1942. P 233-272 – Allen and Unwin : London : 1943 » Spokesman : Nottingham : 1986 » = (Moulds of understanding : a pattern of natural philosophy / Gary Werksey : ed) – Allen & Unwin : London : 1976
[proposes the notion of "integrative levels" in the context of a critical discussion of some aspects of Herbert Spencer's work, with connections to Engels, Comte, Alexander, and others, and several digressions; section The giant vista of evolution (p 258-266) especially outlines the series of physical, chemical, biochemical, cellular, organismic, and social levels; however, it is clearly biased by a socialist view, especially in assuming that the sequence of levels is a progressive evolution of which the obvious next step will be collective management of society and wealth. A distinction is made between levels of organisation and complexity: "When the Americal Railway Association reduces the number of types of axles from 59 to 5 numerical complexity decreases but organisation increases. Mere complexity has, of course, nothing to do with organisation – it may mean confusion only – and purposed reduction of complexity at a lower level is in the interest of activities at higher levels" (p 263 note 1)]

[Nee39]  Introduction / Joseph Needham = (Natural law in the spiritual world / Henry Drummond) – 1939 » The naturalness of the spiritual world : a reappraisement of Henry Drummond = Time: the refreshing river. P 28-41 – Allen and Unwin : London : 1943 » Spokesman : Nottingham : 1986
[in the context of a critical introduction to Drummond, agrees with his idea of spirituality as a development of the natural world at a higher integrative level than material and organic, rather than a separate supernatural realm]

[Nee45]  A note on dr Novikoff's article / Joseph Needham = Science. 101 : 1945. 2632. P 582

[Nic88]  Niveaux de réalité et transdisciplinarité / Basarab Nicolescu = Source, tradition et modernité : les sagesses anciennes et l'homme à venir. P 31-46 – L'originel : Paris : 1988

[Nic93a]  Complexité et niveaux de réalité / Basarab Nicolescu = 50 rue de Varenne : simple/complex. Mars 1988. P 38-43

[Nic93b]  Niveaux de complexité et niveaux de Réalité : vers une nouvelle définition de la nature / Basarab Nicolescu = Sources : Namur. 13: 1993. P 61-81

[Nic94]  Niveaux de complexité et niveaux de Réalité : vers une nouvelle définition de la Nature / Basarab Nicolescu = L'homme, la science et la nature : regards transdisciplinaires. P 15-38 – Le mail : Paris : 1994

[Nic96]  Levels of complexity and levels of Reality : nature as trans-nature / Basarab Nicolescu = (The emergence of compexity in mathematics, physics, chemistry and biology) = Scripta varia. 89: Proceedings of the plenary session of the Pontifical academy of sciences : 27-31 october 1992. P 393-417 / Bernard Pullman : ed – Pontificia academia scientiarum : Roma : 1996

[Nic00]  Transdisciplinarity and complexity : levels of Reality as source of indeterminacy / Basarab Nicolescu = Determinismo e complessità. P 127-142 / F Tito Arecchi : ed – Armando : Roma : 2000

[Nic01]  [Levels of reality and the sacred, in Romanian] / Basarab Nicolescu = Academica : Bucarest. 1-2: 2001. P 12-13

[Nic03a]   Niveaux de Réalité / Basarab Nicolescu = Implications philosophiques de la science contemporaine. 3. P 104-105 / Bernard d'Espagnat : direction – PUF : Paris : 2003

[Nic03b]   Les niveaux de Réalité et le sacré / Basarab Nicolescu = Science and religion : antagonism or complemenarity. 21. P 37-48 – Eonul Dogmatic : Bucarest : 2003 » Nivelurile de Realitate si sacrul = Stiinta si religie : antagonism sau complementaritate?. 21. P 37-50 – Eonul dogmatic : Bucarest : 2003

[Nic05]   Niveaux de Réalité et tiers inclus / Basarab Nicolescu = Revue APMF : écrits et manuscrits de la médiation familiale. 11: 2005. P 6-12

[Nic06]  Heisenberg and the levels of Reality / Basarab Nicolescu = European journal of science and theology. 2: 2006. 1. P 9-19 | (Arxiv) – <>

[Nov45]  The concept of integrative levels and biology / Alex B Novikoff = Science. 101. P 209-215
[replies by Joseph Needham and by RW Gerard & AE Emerson in Science. 101. P 582-585]

[OCo94]  Emergent properties / T O'Connor = American philosophical quarterly. 31: 1994. P 91-104

[Pep26]  Emergence / Stephen C Pepper = Journal of philosophy. 23: 1926. P 241-245 ]] – <>
[speaks of "levels of existence defined in terms of degrees of integration", but views levels only as epiphenomenal]

[Pet78]  Major integrative levels and the fo-so series / MLR Pettersson = Aslib proceedings. 30 : 1978. 6. P 215-237

[Pet96]  Complexity and evolution / Max [LR] Pettersson – Cambridge University Press : Cambridge : 1996
[according to Sha98, "a sort of authorized continuation of Needham's views about integrative levels and the like"; publisher's note: "ranges across the physical, biological and social sciences in the development of its primary theme, that there are nine major "integrative levels" that can be recognized. The term integrative levels was first used by Joseph Needham in 1937, and has two key features. The first is that members of a given integrative level are unified entities and the second is that a member of one level is commonly composed of parts that are members of the next lower level. Thus fundamental particles form Level 1 while Level 9 is that of sovereign states"]

[Pet16]  Flat, hierarchical, or stratified? Determination and dependence in social-natural ontology / Keith R Peterson = New research of the philosophy of Nicolai Hartmann. Chapter 6: P 109-130 / Keith R Peterson, Roberto Poli : ed' – De Gruyter : Berlin, Boston : 2016
[argues that dependence only holds between Hartmann's major strata, while layers are in a whole-part relationship]

[Pola70]  Transcendence and self-transcendence / Michael Polanyi = Soundings. 53: 1970. 1. P 88?94 || <>

[Poli96]  Ontology for knowledge organization / Roberto Poli = Knowledge organization and change : proceedings of _ ISKO conference. p 313-319 / Rebecca Green : ed – Indeks : Frankfurt || <>

[Poli98]  Levels / Roberto Poli = Axiomathes. 9 : 1998. 1-2. P 197-211 – <> || <>

[Poli01]  The basic problem of the theory of levels of reality / Roberto Poli = Axiomathes. 12 : 2001. 3-4. P 261-283 || <>

[Poli06a]  Levels of reality and the psychological stratum / Roberto Poli = Revue internationale de philosophie. 61: 2006. 2. P 163-180 || <>

[Poli06b]  The theory of levels of reality and the difference between simple and tangled hierarchies / Roberto Poli = Systemics of emergence : research and development. P 715-722 / G Minati, E Pessa E, M Abram ed – Springer : Berlin : 2006 || <>

[Poli06c]  First steps in experimental phenomenology / Roberto Poli = Artificial cognition systems. P 358-386 / A Loula, R Gudwin, J Queiroz : ed's – Idea group : Hersey (PA) || <>

[Poli07]  Idee di scienza e livelli di realtà / Roberto Poli – UniService : Trento : 2007

[Poli08]  Two theories of levels of reality : in dialogue with Basarab Nicolescu / Roberto Poli = (Transdisciplinarity in science and religion) || <>

[Poli09]  Ontology: the categorial stance / Roberto Poli = TAO: Theory and applications of ontology. 1: Philosophical perspectives. P _ / Roberto Poli, Johanna Seibt, J Symons : ed – Springer : Berlin : 2008 || <>

[Poli10]  Spheres of being and the network of ontological dependencies / Roberto Poli = Polish journal of philosophy. 4: 2010. 2. P 171-182

[Pop72]  Objective knowledge : an evolutionary approach / Karl Popper – 1972 » rev' ed – 1979

[Pop73]  Indeterminism is not enough / Karl Popper = Encounter. 40: 1973.04. P 20-26 » The open universe : an argument for indeterminism. Addendum 1: p 113-130 – Hutchinson : London, Melbourne, Sydney, Auckland, Johannesburg : 1982

[Pop74]  Scientific reduction and the essential incompleteness of all science / Karl Popper = (Studies in the philosophy of biology / FJ Ayala, T Dobzhansky : eds – 1974) » The open universe : an argument for indeterminism. Addendum 2: p 131-162 – Hutchinson : London, Melbourne, Sydney, Auckland, Johannesburg : 1982

[Pop77]  The self and its brain : an argument for interactionism / Karl Popper, John C Eccles – 1977

[Pop78a]  Natural selection and the emergence of mind / Karl Popper = Dialectica. 32: 1978. 3-4. P 339?355 » Evolutionary epistemology, rationality, and the sociology of knowledge. P 139-156 / Gerard Radnitzky, WW Bartley III : eds – Open court : La Salle : 1987

[Pop78b]  Three worlds : [lecture] delivered at the University of Michigan, April 7, 1978 / Karl Popper = (The Tanner lecture on Human values) – University of Utah. Tanner humanities center

[Pop85]  Die Zukunft ist offen : das Altenberg Gespräch mit den Texten des Wiener Popper-Symposiums / Karl R Popper, Konrad Lorenz – Piper : München : 1985

[Pop94]  Knowledge and the body-mind problem / Karl Popper ; Mark Amadeus Notturno : ed – 1994

[Red42]  Levels of integration in biological and social systems / R Redfield = (Biological symposia. 8) – Cattell : Lancaster : 1942

[Rei25]  An electromagnetic theory of matter, life, and mind / Oliver L Reiser = Monist. 35 : 1925. P 605-632

[Ric1901]  Classification: theoretical and practical / Ernest Cushing Richardson – Charles Scribner's Sons : New York : 1901
["used these canons of evolutionary classification to organize the things of the world in a linear order, progressing from ions, atoms, and molecules, through inanimate matter (i.e., "lifeless things"), plants and animals (i.e., "living things") to human beings and societies (i.e., "human things"), and, ultimately, God (i.e., "supernatural things"). This order of things – which, in its general outlines, bears a distinct resemblance to that advocated by integrative levels theory – served as a basis for constructing a classification of sciences: in broadest terms, these followed a progression from "Hylology" (i.e., sciences dealing with inanimate matter, including physics, chemistry, astronomy, and geology), through "Biology", to "Anthropology" (including psychology and sociology), and "Theology" (Richardson 1901, 39-44)." (The simple and the complex in E. C. Richardson's theory of classification / Thomas Dousa = (Paradigms and conceptual systems in knowledge organization : proceedings of the Eleventh international ISKO conference, Rome, 23rd-26th February 2010 / Claudio Gnoli, Fulvio Mazzocchi : ed – Ergon : Würzburg : 2010))]

[Row61]  The level-of-integration concept and ecology / JS Rowe = Ecology. 42. 2. P 420-427

[Rue00a]  Robust supervenience and emergence / Alexander Rueger = Philosophy of science. 67. 3. P 466-489

[Rue00b]  Physical emergence, diachronic and synchronic / Alexander Rueger = Synthese. 124: 2000. P 297-322

[Salk83]  Anatomy of reality : merging of intuition and reason / Jonas Salk – Columbia university press : New York : 1983

[Salt85]  Evolving hierarchical systems : their structure and representation / Stanley Salthe – Columbia university press : New York : 1985

[Salt88]  Notes toward a formal history of the levels concept / Stanley N Salthe = (Gre88)

[Salt02]  Summary of the principles of hierarchy theory / Stanley N Salthe = General systems bulletin. 31 : 2002. P 13-17

[Salt04]  The spontaneous origin of new levels in dynamical hierarchies / Stanley N Salthe = Entropy. 6 : 2004. P 327-343 || <>

[Salt09]  A hierarchical framework for levels of reality / Stanley N Salthe = Axiomathes. 19 : 2009. 1. P 87-99

[Say04]  The mechanism of emergence / R Keith Saywer = Philosophy of the social sciences. 34: 2004. P 260-282

[Sch49]  A biological survey of integrative levels / TC Schneirla = (Philosophy for the future : the quest for modern materialism / Roy Wood Sellars, VJ McGill, Marvin Farber : ed – Macmillan : New York)

[Sch51]  The "levels" concept in the study of social organization in animals / TC Schneirla = (Sch72)

[Sch72]   Selected writings of TC Schneirla / Lester R Aronson, Ethel Tobach, Jay S Rosenblatt, Daniel S Lehrman : ed – Freeman : San Francisco : 1972
[collects 34 papers in comparative psychology plus a complete bibliography; 1032 P]

[Scha03]  Is there a fundamental level? / Jonathan Schaffer = Noûs. 37 : 2003. 3. P 498-517

[Sei08]  Forms of emergent interaction in General Process Theory / Johanna Seibt = Synthèse. 2008. _

[Sel26]   Principles and problems in philosophy / Roy Wood Sellars – Macmillan : New York : 1926 » # 2 : The principles, perspectives and problems of philosophy – Pageant : New York : 1970

[Sel33]   L'hypothèse de l'emergence / Roy Wood Sellars = Revue de métaphysique et de morale. 40 : 1933. P 309-324

[Sel44a]   Is naturalism enough? / Roy Wood Sellars = Journal of philosophy. 41 : 1944. P 533-544

[Sel44b]   Can a reformed materialism do justice to values? / Roy Wood Sellars = Ethics. 55 : 1944. P 28-45

[Sel44c]   Reformed materialism and intrinsic duration / Roy Wood Sellars = Philosophical review. 53 : 1944. P 359-382

[Sel59]   Levels of causality : the emergence of guidance and reason in nature / Roy Wood Sellars = Philosophy and phenomenological research. 20 : 1959. P 1-17

[Sha98]   Biological order, or levels of organization = (Notebooks) / Cosma R Shalizi – University of Michigan. Center for the study of complex systems : <> : 1998-

[Smi97]  The major transitions in evolution / John Maynard Smith, Eörs Szathmáry – Freeman : Oxford : 1995 » Oxford university press : Oxford, ' : 1997

[Smu26]  Holism and evolution / Jan Smuts – Macmillan : New York : 1926

[Sot06]  Emergentism by default : a view for the bench / A Soto, C Sonnerscheim = Synthese. 151: 2006. P 361-376

[Ste92]  Emergence: a systematic view on its historical facets / A Stephan = Bec92. P 25-48

[Tei59]  The phenomenon of man / Pierre Teilhard de Chardin ; Julian Huxley : introduction ; Bernard Wall : translation – Harper : New York : 1956

[Tei75]  My fundamental vision / Pierre Teilhard de Chardin = (Toward the future / René Hague : ed) – 1975

[Thi95]  Do the laws of nature evolve? / Walter Thirring = (What is life? : the next fifty years : speculations on the future of biology / MP Murphy, LA O'Neil : eds – Cambridge university press : Cambridge : 1995) [cited by Nicolescu]

[Thb]  Activity theory and the concept of integrative levels / Ethel Tobach = Perspectives on activity theory. P 133-146 / In Yrjö Engeström, Reijo Miettinen, Raija-Leena Punamäki-Gitai : ed' — Cambridge University Press : 1999
[connects levels with dialectical materialism and activity theory; quotes Schneirla]

[Tho20]  System of animate nature : the Gifford lectures for 1915 and 1916 / J Arthur Thompson – Holt : London : 1920

[Tho25]  Concerning evolution : the Terry lectures / J Arthur Thompson – Harvard university press : Cambridge (Mass') : 1925

[Var14]  Le tribolazioni del filosofare : commedia metaphysica ne la quale si tratta de li errori & de le pene de l'Infero / Achille C Varzi, Claudio Calosi – Laterza : Roma, Bari : 2014
[discusses common errors in ontology in form of the parody of a Medieval poem; Canto 12 (P 133-144) and its explanation (P XXII) criticize "realists in the levels of reality"]

[Whe26]  Emergent evolution of the social / WM Wheeler = Proceedings of the Sixth international congress of philosophy. P 33-45 / Edgar S Brightman : ed – Longmans, Green and co. : New York : 1926 » = Science. 64: 1926. P 433-440

[Whe28]  Emergent evolution and the development of societies / WM Wheeler – Norton : New York : 1928 [extended edition of Whe26]

[Wim94]  The ontology of complex systems: levels, perspectives, and causal thickets / William C Wimsatt = Biology and society : reflections on methodology / Mohan Matten, RX Ware : eds = Canadian journal of philosophy. Supplement 20: 1994. P 207-274

[Wim97]  Aggregativity: reductive heuristics for finding emergence / William C Wimsatt = Philosophy of science. 64. 4. Supplement: Proceedings of the 1996 biennial meetings of the PSA. 2. P S372-S384

[Wim98]  Emergence as non-aggregativity and the biases of reductionisms = (Piecewise approximations to reality / William C Wimsatt) – Harvard university press : Cambridge (MA) : 1998?

[Woo29]  Biological principles : a critical study. 6.12 : Hierarchies of levels of organization : implications of this notion for biological explanation / Joseph Henry Woodger – Kegan Paul : London : 1929 ]] review / Joseph Needham = Mind. NS. 39 : 1930 : 154. P 221-226

[Woo37]  The axiomatic method in biology / Joseph Henry Woodger – Cambridge university press : Cambridge : 1937 ]] review / ES Allen = Bulletin of the American mathematical society. 44 : 1938. P 763-764 + review / Conrad H Waddington = The mathematical gazette. 22 : 1938 : 249. P 192-193

Works by CRG members

[Aus69a]  Prospects for a new general classification / Derek Austin = Journal of librarianship. 1 : 1969. 3. P 149-169 | <>

[Aus69b]  The new general faceted classification / Derek Austin = Catalogue & index. 14 : 1969. P 11-13

[Aus69c]  Development of a new general classification / Derek Austin = Information scientist. 1969. Nov. P 95-115

[Aus70]  Subject retrieval in UK MARC / Derek Austin = UK Marc project : proceedings of the seminar ' organised by the Cataloguing and indexing group of the Library association at the University of Southampton / Jeffrey, Wilson : eds – Oriel : 1970

[Aus71]  Itself an education : six lectures on classification : E 2 / Bernard I Palmer. Part 2: Two steps forward... / Derek Austin – the Library association : London : 1971

[Aus72]  Trends towards a general compatible system / Derek Austin = Classification in the 1970s : a discussion of development and prospects for the major schemes. P 213-248 / Arthur Maltby : ed – Bingley : London : 1972

[Aus74a]  A conceptual approach to the organisation of machine-held files for subject retrieval / Derek Austin ; JM Perreault : commentary = Conceptual basis [sic] of the classification of knowledge : proceedings of the Ottawa conference : October 1st to 5th, 1971. P 371-403 / Jerzy A Wojciechowski : ed – Dokumentation Saur : Pullach bei München : 1974

[Aus74b]  The development of PRECIS. 2: The classificatory backgrounds of PRECIS / Derek Austin = Journal of documentation. 30: 1974. n. 1. P 53-63

[Aus76a]  The CRG research into a freely faceted scheme / Derek Austin = Classification in the 1970s : a second look. P 158-194 / Arthur Maltby : ed – Bingley : London : 1976

[Aus76b]  Citation order and linguistic structure / Derek Austin = The variety of librarianship : essays in honour of John Wallace Metcalfe. P 19-46 / WB Rayward : ed – Library association of Australia : Sydney : 1976

[Aus79]  Differences between library classifications and machine-based subject retrieval systems: some inferences drawn from research in Britain, 1963-1973 / Derek Austin = Ordering information systems for global information networks : proceedings 3' International study conference on Classification research : Bombay : 1975. P 326-340 / A Neelameghan : ed – FID. Classification research, Sarada Ranganathan endowment for library science : Bangalore : 1979

[Aus98]  Derek Austin: developing PRECIS, Preserved context indexing system / Derek Austin = Portraits in cataloging and classification. P 23-66 / Carolynne Myall, Ruth C Carter : ed -- Haworth press : 1998

[CRG61]  Classification research group bulletin. 6 = Journal of documentation. 17 : 1961. n 3. P 156-172
[includes discussion of fundamental categories, integrative levels, and place of unique definition as applied to a new general classification scheme, with contributions by Kyle, Vickery, Farradane, Foskett (who "suggested that the use of a concept such as that of 'levels of integration' might be useful": p 163), Palmer, Langridge; CRG bulletin 7 is about special schemes not directly related to ILC]

[CRG64a]  Classification research group bulletin. 8. 3: Integrative levels, 4: General classification and NATO grant = Journal of documentation. 20 : 1964. n 3. P 155-165
[with contributions by Jolley, Kyle, Mills, Foskett, Fairthorne, Farradane]

[CRG64b]  Some problems of a general classification scheme : report of a conference held in London, June 1963 – Library association : London : 1964 » [reprinted in CRG69]

[CRG68]  Classification research group bulletin. 9. The NATO research, The general classification = Journal of documentation. 24 : 1968. P 278-290
[with contributions by Tomlinson, Farradane, Austin, Mills, Wells, Myers, Datta, Mayne, Foskett, Coates, Kyle]

[CRG69]  Classification and information control / "Classification research group" = Library association research pamphlets. 1 -- Library association : London : 1969 [includes:

[CRG73]  Classification research group bulletin. 10. Introduction, General classification = Journal of documentation. 29 : 1973. n 1. P 51-56
[with contributions by Austin, Foskett, Langridge, Fairthorne, Campbell, Farradane]

[CRG78]  Classification research group bulletin. 11. Problems of a general classification = Journal of documentation. 34 : 1978. 1. p 23
[with contributions by Langdridge, Farradane, Austin, Sandison, Fairthorne, Coates; includes discussion on the Chinese plate syndrome]

[Far50]  A scientific theory of classification and indexing and its practical applications / Jason EL Farradane = Journal of documentation. 6 : 1950. 2. P 83-99
[introduces the idea that each knowledge element be defined uniquely "at its own level of complexity"]

[Far66]  Classification research group / Jason EL Farradane = Encyclopaedia of librarianship # 3' ed. P 107-109 / Thomas Landau : ed – Bowes & Bowes : London : 1966
[mention is made of CRG's concern about new general classification, and introduces the principle of levels of integration as a method of ordering entities / KK]

[Fos58]  Library classification and the field of knowledge / Douglas J Foskett = Occasional papers. 1 – Chaucer House : London : 1958
[reviews the order of levels in previous classification systems and argues for a realist application of levels in classification]

[Fos59]  Comments on fundamental categories in document classification : [submitted paper] / Douglas J Foskett = (Delhi library conference. 1959) [presents ongoing studies aimed at testing "whether such a 'materialistic' approach is valid for the primary division of the field of knowledge into the 'main classes' of a classification scheme", cited by Grolier 1961]

[Fos61]  Classification and integrative levels / Douglas J Foskett = The Sayers memorial volume : essays in librarianship in memory of William Charles Berwick Sayers. P 136-150 / DJ Foskett, BI Palmer for the Classification research group: London : ed – the Library association : London : 1961 » = Theory of subject analysis : a sourcebook. P 210-220 / Lois Mai Chan, Phyllis A Richmond, Elaine Svenonius : ed – Libraries unlimited : Littleton (Colorado) : 1985

[Fos62]  The Classification research group, 1952-1962 / Douglas J Foskett = Libri. 12 : 1962. 2. P 127-138

[Fos63]  Classification and indexing in the social sciences. Chapter 8: The structure of classification schemes 2: General schemes: p 129-145 / Douglas J Foskett – Butterworths : London : 1963 » # 2 – 1974

[Fos70a]  Classification for a general index language : a review of recent research by the Classification research group / Douglas J Foskett = Library association research pamphlets. 2 – Library association : London : 1970

[Fos70b]  Beyond reductionism / Douglas J Foskett = Journal of librarianship. 2 : 1970. P 139-143

[Fos71]  Problems of indexing and classification in social sciences / Douglas J Foskett = International social science journal. 23 : 1971. P 244-255

[Fos72]  Information and general systems theory / Douglas J Foskett = Journal of librarianship. 4 : 1972. 3. P 205-209

[Fos74]  Information and systems philosophy / Douglas J Foskett = Journal of librarianship. 6 : 1974. 2. P 126-130

[Fos78]  The theory of integrative levels and its relevance to the design of information systems / Douglas J Foskett = ASLIB proceedings. 30 : 1978. 6. P 202-208

[Fos79]  Trends in research on universal classification / Douglas J Foskett = Library science with a slant to documentation. 16 : 1979. 2. P 62-64
[Reviews Dahlberg's "Ontical structures and universal classification"; highlights the recent developments in classification research: identifies the interrelationship of philosophical, psychological and linguistic approaches in the design of classification schemes, thesauri and indexing languages; mention is particularly made of the idea of ILs; emphasizes that BC2 and BSO do in many respects reflect the works of CRG.]

[Fos80]  Systems theory and its relevance to documentary classification / Douglas J Foskett = International classification. 7 : 1980. P 2-5

[Jol64]  [letter] / JL Jolley = (Journal of documentation. 20 : 1964. 4)

[Jol67]  The pattern of meaning / JL Jolley = (Classification society bulletin. 1967)

[Jol68a]  Relation codes: an ordering of ideas / JL Jolley = New scientist. 38: 1968. 597: May 16. P 338-340

[Jol68b]  Data study. Chapter 9: The pattern of meaning / JL Jolley – Weidenfeld and Nicholson, McGraw-Hill, Hachette, Kindler, Meulenoff-de Haan, il Saggiatore, Guadarrama, Heibon Sha : 1968
[presents integrative levels as a pattern in which each information term can find its place, the first two being those of mathematical and geometrical entities; explores how assemblies, systems, and combines can be identified between consecutive levels; and how qualities, occurrences, changes, and relations can be identified as well as objects]

[Jol73]  The fabric of knowledge / JL Jolley – Duckworth : London : 1973 ]] review / EJ Coates = Library association record. 76 : 1974. P 33

[Jol74]  The holotheme / JL Jolley ; Robert A Fairthorne : addendum = Conceptual basis [sic] of the classification of knowledge : proceedings of the Ottawa conference : October 1st to 5th, 1971. P 335-370 / Jerzy A Wojciechowski : ed – Dokumentation Saur : Pullach bei München : 1974

[Kyl56]  EG Brisch : something new in classification / Barbara RF Kyle = Special libraries. 47: 1956. n 3. P 100-105

[Kyl57]  Summary of the discussions = Proceedings of the International study conference on Classification for information retrieval : Dorking : 13-17 May 1957. P 87-109 / "International federation for documentation" – Aslib : London : 1957
[reports Barbara Kyle's claim that "we should start our classifications with specific things, not with disciplines. Disciplines arose for professional not intellectual reasons. We must ignore them and classify the objects of study, introducing division by disciplines only at a secondary stage" (p 96); disciplines can be located under socially constructed conventions]

[Kyl58]  Towards a classification for social science literature / Barbara RF Kyle = American documentation. 9 : 1958. P 168-183

[Kyl59]  An examination of some of the problems involved in drafting general classifications and some proposals for their solution / Barbara RF Kyle = Review of documentation. 26 : 1959. 1. P 17-21

[Vic57]  Relations between subject fields: problems of constructing a general classification / BC Vickery = Proceedings of the International study conference on Classification for information retrieval : Dorking : 13-17 May 1957. P 43-49 / "International federation for documentation" – Aslib : London : 1957

[Vic75]  Classification and indexing in science # ed' 3. Appendix A. Levels of aggregation : P 116 / BC Vickery – Butterworths : London : 1975 « ed' 2 – 1958 » ed' 1 – 1958

Comments to CRG work

[Buc79]  Theory of library classification. P 111-115 / Brian Buchanan – Bingley : London : 1979
[following a description of the principle of levels of organization, compares the integrative levels theory with Bliss's gradation by speciality. Concludes that the latter is based on his perception of relationships between documents, while the former is absolute scientific order / KK]

[Che90]  Le categorie nell'indicizzazione / Alberto Cheti = Biblioteche oggi. 8: 1990. 1. P 29-49
[surveys work on categories in subject indexing; p 39-48 describe the NATO CRG project, its developments in PRECIS, and the relevance of unique definition for a general thesaurus; suggests connections of syntactic relationships with psychological and linguistic studies]

[Cro63]  New schemes of classification: principles and practices / CA Crossley = Library association record. 65 : 1963. 2. P 51-59 [in the later part of the paper, discusses the question of constructing a new general classification as the then current research by CRG, and introduces the notion of levels of organization / KK]

[Dah74]  Die Integrationsstufen von Feibleman und die Arbeiten von D Austin / Ingetraut Dahlberg = Grundlagen universaler Wissensordnung : Probleme und Möglichkeiten eines universalen Klassifikationssystems des Wissens. 4.4.3 : p 228-233 / ID = DGD- Schriftenreihe. 3. – Dokumentation : Pullach bei München : 1974

[Dah78]  The levels of being : from Aristotle to Nicolai Hartmann = Ontical structures and universal classification. Section 3.2: p 28-31 / Ingetraut Dahlberg – SRELS : Bangalore : 1978
[believes that levels are "a very suitable, objective (in the true sense of the word) basis for a universal classification system", but that the CRG failed in managing disciplines and in placing artifacts and mentefacts in their scheme]

[Des75]  Theory of integrative levels, general systems theory, theory of classification, theory of evolution, and theory of pattern recognition : abstract / AR Desai = Ordering systems for global information networks : proceedings of the 3rd International study conference on Classification research : Bombay : 6-11 January 1975. P 119

[Gro61]   Points de vue rétrospectif et prospectif dans la classification / Éric de Grolier = The Sayers memorial volume : essays in librarianship in memory of WCB Sayers. P 96-119 – Library association : London : 1971
[p 100-102 deal with ILs, observing that they can be reconnected not only to materialistic views, like for Vickery, Foskett and other CRG authors, but also to other philosophies and authors; in particular, mentions a similar approach in Paul Braffort, Classification alpha-numérique pour le fichier matières du Service de documentation du Commissariat à l'énergie atomique, Rapport CEA n 238, 1953, 3' ed 1960]

[Gro65]   On the theoretical basis of information retrieval systems : final report / Éric de Grolier = Institut national des techniques. Report AD 628 183 – INT : Paris : 1965
[at p 176 mentions philosophical precursors of IL theory]

[Gro70]   Quelques travaux récents en matière de classification encyclopédique / Éric de Grolier = Bulletin des bibliothèques de France. 15 : 1970. 3. P 99-126

[Gro74]   Le système des sciences et l'évolution du savoir / Éric de Grolier = Conceptual basis [sic] of the classification of knowledge : proceedings of the Ottawa conference : October 1st to 5th, 1971. P 20-118 / Jerzy A Wojciechowski : ed – Dokumentation Saur : Pullach bei München : 1974 ]] translated excerpts

[Hop73]  General classification theory : the work of the Classification research group / Fran Hopkins = Library resources and technical services. 17 : 1973. 2. P 201-210

[Huc72]  An enquiry into the theory of integrative levels as the basis for a generalized classification scheme / Sarah Ann Scott Huckaby = Journal of documentation. 28 : 1972. 2. P 97-106

[Jus01]   A historical and critical exploration of the Classification Research Group of London, England : thesis / Alexander Earle Justice ; "University of California. Los Angeles. Master of Library and information science" : 2001

[Jus04]   Information science as a facet of the history of British science: the origins of the Classification Research Group / Alexander Justice = Conference on the history and heritage of scientific and technological information systems : proceedings of the 2002 conference. P 267-280 / WB Rayward, ME Bowden eds – Information today : Medford (NJ) ; American society of information science and technology ; Chemical heritage foundation : 2004 || <>

[Kaw88]  Subject indication for information retrieval : the contributions of Eric Coates [in Japanese]  / Keiichi Kawamura – Nichigai : Tokyo : 1988
[includes discussion of integrative levels in BSO and in BC2 classes for phenomena and for disciplines]

[Kaw03]   The selection and order of main classes in general classification schemes: considerations on the philosophical and socio-historical backgrounds [in Japanese] / Keiichi Kawamura = Journal of Japan society of library and information science. 50 : 2004. 1. P 1-25
[describes how classification schemes evolved from philosophically based (DC) to evolutionary based (SC, CC, BC1, BC2, BSO), paying more attention to phenomena as compared to disciplines; includes mention of CRG work on integrative levels, arguing that the principle cannot spread into schemes as it (1) cannot keep a linear order, (2) cannot deal well with human and intellectual products, (3) cannot arrange well the margins between two disciplinary fields / HM
Abstract: The philosophical and socio-historical backgrounds concerning the selection and order of main classes in general classification schemes are discussed. 28 schemes that have been published in book form since Harris's scheme of 1870 are selected. All of the schemes base their main classes on disciplines that are encountered in the real world, but they differ in number and order due to the world-view on the one hand and the notational constraint on the other. Moreover, a home-made scheme devised for its own library is obliged to reflect its collection, and a unified or common scheme for nation-wide use should take account of its socio-historical background. Only a universal scheme keeps its philosophical principles. The author thinks that the schemes of Brown's SC (1906), Ranganathan's CC (1933), Bliss' s BC (1940), BCA/CRG's BC2 (1977) and Unesco/FID's BSO (1978), the bodies of which all together begin with natural sciences, create a new history of universal classification that is based on evolutionary ideas. They also form a de-Dewey history of general classification that was completed 100 years after DDC of 1876]

[Kle17]  Integrative levels / Michael Kleineberg = (ISKO encyclopedia of knowledge organization / Birger Hjørland : editor-in-chief) – ISKO : : 2017 » Knowledge organization. 44. 5. P 349-379

[Kus67]  Classification Research Group of England in dealing of some universal classification problems [in Russian?] / AY Kushul = Nauchno-tekhicheskaya informatsiya. Seriya 2: Informatsionnye protsessy sistemy. 4: 1967. P 7-_

[Mil70]  Progress in documentation / Jack Mills – Journal of documentation. 26: 1970. 2. P 120-160

[Mou14]  Emerging discursive formations, folksonomy and social semantic information spaces (SSIS): the contributions of the theory of integrative levels in the studies carried out by the Classification Research Group / Maria Aparecida Moura = Knowledge organization. 41: 2014. 4. P 304-310

[Nov10]   A taxonomia enquanto estrutura classificatória: uma aplicação em domínio de conhecimento interdisciplinar / Hildenise Ferreira Novo = Ponto de Acesso. 4; 2010. 2. P 131-156 — <>
"[...] This work presents the method used in the organization of the taxonomy of the Environmental Geochemistry and demonstrates the stages for modeling of the domain. These stages are based on the Faceted Classification Theory and on the principles of the Integrative Levels Theory. Furthermore, this work points out the conceptual map as graphical form of representation."

[Pal71]  Itself an education. Six lectures on classification # Edition 2. Part 1. Chapter 3: Contemporary questioning of the basis of main classes / Bernard Ira Palmer – the Library association : London : 1971

[Ric65]  Contribution toward a new generalized theory of classification / Phyllis A Richmond = Classification research : proceedings of the 2' International study conference : Elsinore : 1964. P 39-54 / Pauline Atherton : ed – Munksgaard : Copenhagen : 1965
["...the criticism of the CRG's use of the theory of integrative levels which concerns physical categories, and does not give equivalent room for mental constructions" (R Mölgaard-Haansen in JA Woijciechowski ed, Conceptual basis of the classification of knowledge, Verlag Dokumentation, 1974]

[Ric71]  Review of "Classification and information control" by Clasification research group and "Classification for a general index language" by DJ Foskett / Phyllis A Richmond = Library resources and technical services. 15: 1971. P 263-266

[Spi95]  The Classification Research Group and the theory of integrative levels / Louise Spiteri = The Katharine Sharp review. 1 : 1995. – <>

[Wil98]  An interdisciplinary world and discipline based classification / Nancy J Williamson = Structures and relations in knowledge organization : proceedings of the 5th ISKO conference : Lille : 25-29 August 1998. P 115-124 – Ergon : Würzburg : 1998 [whishes that research be resumed building on past CRG work]

[Wil72]  The work of the British Classification research group / Thomas D Wilson = Subject retrieval in the Seventies. P 62-71 / Hans Wellisch, Thomas D Wilson : ed – Greenwood : Westport (CT) : 1972

[Yam90]  Developments of classification theory in the British Classification Research Group (CRG) / Tsuneo Yamada = Classification, indexing and databases : collection of papers in memory of Tsuneo Yamada. P 1-111 – Publishing committee for the works of Tsuneo Yamada : Tokyo : 1990
[section 14 deals with Kyle classification, and section 15 with application of integrative level theory and general system theory; suggests the possibility of the phenomenon approach, and argues that there is no need of a linear sequence of phenomena (which would solve the problem of branching). Yamada translated Mills' "A modern outline of library classification" in 1982, and passed away in 1988 in his late forties / HM, KK]

Contributions of the present project

[Gno03a]  Mezzo o messaggio? : le classificazioni all'inseguimento delle conoscenze in evoluzione / Claudio Gnoli = Biblioteche oggi. 21 : 2003. 1. P 17-19 – <>

[Gno03b]  Coordinazione, ordine di citazione e livelli integrativi in ambiente digitale / Claudio Gnoli = Bibliotime. 6 : 2003. 1 < 1/gnoli.htm>.

[Gno04a]  Naturalism vs. Pragmatism in knowledge organization / Claudio Gnoli = Knowledge organization and the global information society : proceedings of the 8' international ISKO conference : London (UK) : 2004.07.13-16. P 263-268 / Ia McIlwaine : ed – Ergon : W?rzburg : 2004 || preprint [RTF format]

[Gno04b]  Levels of reality and levels of representation / Claudio Gnoli, Roberto Poli = Knowledge organization. 31 : 2004. 3. P 151-160 ]] abstract

[Gno05a]  BC2 class for phenomena : an application of the theory integrative levels / Claudio Gnoli = Bliss classification bulletin. 47 : 2005. P 17-21 || DLIST. – <> [RTF format]

[Gno05b]  Architettura dell'informazione a faccette libere / Claudio Gnoli = Trovabile. – <> : 2005.04.24-

[Gno05c]  Classificazione a livelli per una bibliografia web di cultura locale / Claudio Gnoli = Classificare la documentazione locale : giornata di studio : San Giorgio di Nogaro : 17 dicembre 2005. [3] – ISKO Italia <> : 2005-

[Gno05d]  Grafi e classificazione / Claudio Gnoli, Viviana Doldi = (Tavola rotonda sul Web semantico: sintesi e proposte : Prato : 2005.01.26) » p 11-14 (LIUC papers. 183 = Materiali bibliografici. 6 : 2005.12 – Libera università Cattaneo : Castellanza) || (E-LIS) – <http://eprints.rclis .org/archive/00003076/> : 2005.02.01-

[Gno05e]  Notazione e interfaccia di ricerca per una classificazione a livelli / Claudio Gnoli, Gabriele Merli = AIDA informazioni. 23 : 2005. n 1-2. P 57-72 ]] Italian and English abstracts [please scroll down]

[Hon05]  A phenomenon approach to faceted classification [in Japanese] / Hong Mei = JSLIS: Japan society of Library and information science. Conference 53 : Keio university : 2005.10.22-23. ]] English abstract

[Gno06a]  The meaning of facets in nondisciplinary classifications / Claudio Gnoli = Knowledge organization for a global learning society : proceedings 9th ISKO international conference : Vienna : July 2006. P 11-18 / Gerhard Budin, Christian Swertz, Konstantin Mitgutsch : ed – Ergon : Würzburg : 2006 || preprint [RTF format], slides [PPT format, 10 Mbyte!]

[Gno06b]  Freely faceted classification for Web-based information retrieval / Claudio Gnoli, Hong Mei = New review of hypermedia & multimedia. 12: 2006. 1. P 63-81 « preprint [RTF format]

[Gno06c]  Phylogenetic classification = Knowledge organization. 33: 2006. 3. P 138-152 ]] abstract

[Gno07a]  A new relationship for multidisciplinary knowledge organization systems: dependence / Claudio Gnoli, Mela Bosch, Fulvio Mazzocchi = (La interdisciplinariedad y la transdisciplinariedad en la organización del conoscimiento científico = Interdisciplinarity and transdisciplinarity in the organization of scientific knowledge : actas del VIII Congreso ISKO-España: León, 18, 19 y 20 de Abril de 2007). P 399-409 / Blanca Rodríguez Bravo, M'a Luisa Alvite Díez : ed – Universidad de León. Secretariado de Publicaciones: 2007 || preprint [RTF format], slides [PPT format] [see The León manifesto]

[Gno07b]  Progress in synthetic classification : towards unique definition of concepts = Information access for the global community : an international seminar on the Universal decimal classification : The Hague : 2007.06.04-05. [1] | slides » = Extensions & corrections to the UDC. 29: 2007. 167-182 | (DLIST) — <> [PDF format] : 2007.06.14-

[Gno07c]  Freely faceted classification for the BioAcoustic Reference Database [poster] / Claudio Gnoli, Gianni Pavan, Elisabetta Bernuzzi, Marco Priano, Gabriele Merli = (International bioacoustics council meeting : Pavia : September 2007)

[Gno07d]  "Classic" vs. "freely" faceted classification = Ranganathan revisited: facets for the future. [2] : London : 2007.11.05

[Szo07]  The León manifesto / [subscribers Rick Szostak, Claudio Gnoli, María José López-Huertas, Mela Bosch, Blanca Rodríguez Bravo, Murat Karamüftüoglu] — ISKO Italia <> » Knowledge organization. 34: 2007. 1. 6-8

[Ces08a]  Classificare il dominio della comunicazione : analisi di un corpus di fenomeni secondo la teoria dei livelli di integrazione : tesi di laurea in Biblioteconomia / Enzo Cesanelli ; Anna Rosa Rugliano : relatore ; Claudio Gnoli : correlatore ; Università di Trieste. Corso di laurea specialistica in Scienze della comunicazione : AA 2006-2007 ; discussione aprile 2008

[Ces08b]  Classificare il dominio della comunicazione secondo la teoria dei livelli di integrazione / Enzo Cesanelli = (E-LIS) – <> : 2008.09.08-

[Gno08a]  Categories and facets in integrative levels / Claudio Gnoli = Axiomathes. 18: 2008. 2. P 177-192

[Gno08b] Freely faceted classification for a Web-based bibliographic archive : the BioAcoustic Reference Database / Claudio Gnoli, Gabriele Merli, Gianni Pavan, Elisabetta Bernuzzi, Marco Priano = Wissensspeicher in digitalen Räumen : Nachhaltigkeit, Verfügbarkeit, semantische Interoperabilität : Proceedings der 11. Tagung der Deutschen Sektion der Internationalen Gesellschaft für Wissenorganisation, Konstanz, 20. bis 22. Februar 2008 [Knowledge storage in digital space: persistence, availability, semantic interoperability]. P 124-134 / Jörn Sieglerschmidt, H.-Peter Ohly : ed' — Ergon : Würzburg : 2010 — <> [PDF format] : 2008.03.28- || slides [PPT format, 3 Mbyte!]

[Szo08a] Classifying by phenomena, theories and methods : examples with focused social science theories / Rick Szostak, Claudio Gnoli = Culture and identity in knowledge organization : proceedings of the Tenth international ISKO conference : Montréal : 2008.08.05-08. P 205-211 – Ergon : Würzburg : 2008

[Szo08b] An interdisciplinary library classification / Rick Szostak = (Annual Association for integrative studies conference. 30: Springfield (Illinois): 2008.10-23-26)
["One of the barriers to both interdisciplinary research and teaching is that the classifications used in libraries (and online) are almost exclusively discipline-based. The interdisciplinarian can thus not readily identify works from different disciplines on a particular issue or theme. These are not only placed in different locations on library shelves but often referred to by different terminology in subject indices. This presentation will discuss how an interdisciplinary classification can and should be developed. It draws on the presenter's own research, the Integrative Level Classification project, and the Leon Manifesto, issued after a 200[7] conference on interdisciplinarity and knowledge organization."]

[Gno09a] Animals belonging to the emperor : enabling viewpoint warrant in classification = Looking at the past and preparing for the future : IFLA satellite meeting on Classification and subject indexing. [7] : Firenze : 2009.08.20-21

[Gno09b] Beyond aboutness: classifying causal links in the service of interdisciplinarity / Claudio Gnoli, Rick Szostak = (ASIST Special interest group on Classification research 20th Workshop : Vancouver : 2009.11.07)

[Szo09a] Solving the information needs of transdisciplinarians through classification? / Rick Szostak, Claudio Gnoli = (TD-net 2009 : Integration in inter- and transdisciplinary research : Bern : 2009.11.19-21) || slides [PPT format]

[Szo09b]   Transcending discipline-based library classifications / Rick Szostak = (The Oxford handbook of interdisciplinarity / Robert Frodeman, Julie Thompson Klein, Carl Mitcham: eds – Oxford university press : 2009)

[Gno10a]   Levels, types, facets: three structural principles for KO / Claudio Gnoli = (Levels of reality as a KO paradigm : workshop = (Paradigms and conceptual systems in knowledge organization : 11th international ISKO conference : Rome : 2010.02.23-26))

[Gno10b]   Classification transcends library business / Claudio Gnoli = Knowledge organization. 37: 2010. 3. P 223-_ || (Proceedings UDC seminar Classification at a crossroads : The Hague : 2009.10.29-30 = Extensions and correction to the UDC. 2009. Supplement – 2010)

[Gno10c]   Themes and citation order in free classification = IASLIC bulletin. 55: 2010. 1. P 13-19 || (DLIST) — University of Arizona : : 2010-

[Gno11a]   Representing the structural elements of a freely faceted classification / Claudio Gnoli, Tom Pullmann, Philippe Cousson, Gabriele Merli, Rick Szostak = (UDC Seminar. 2011: The Hague: 2011.09.19-20) » Classification and ontology : formal approaches and access to knowledge : proceedings of the International UDC Seminar : 19-20 September 2011 : The Hague. P _ / Aida Slavic, Edgardo Civallero : ed' — Ergon : Würzburg : 2011

[Gno11b]   Ontological foundations in knowledge organization : the theory of integrative levels applied in citation order = (Ibersid : encuentros internacionales sobre sistemas de información. 16 : Zaragoza : 2011.03.05) » Scire. 17 : 2011. 1: La organización del conocimiento: más allá de la información : número monográfico. P 29-34 / Francisco Javier García Marco : ed'

[Gno12]   Vickery's late ideas on classification by phenomena and activities = Facets of knowledge organization : proceedings of the ISKO UK second biennial conference, 4th-5th July 2011, London. 11-24 / Alan Gilchrist, Judi Vernau : ed' — Emerald, Aslib : Bingley : 2012

[Szo12]   Classifying for social diversity / Rick Szostak = Knowledge organization. 41: 2014. 2. P 160-174

[Gno13]   Facets, levels and semantic factoring / Claudio Gnoli = SRELS journal of information management. 50: 2013. 6: Golden Jubilee issue: Knowledge organization from libraries to the Web. P 751-762

[Gno14a]   Unified Theory of Information, hypertextuality and levels of reality / Claudio Gnoli, Riccardo Ridi = Journal of documentation. 70: 2014. 3. P 443-460

[Gno14b]   Per una demarcazione ontologica dei concetti nell'organizzazione della conoscenza = Prospettive ontologiche : realismi a confronto [atti del convegno, Trento 2012.11.08-10]. P 303-317 / Roberto Poli : ed' — Morcelliana : Brescia : 2014

[Gno14c]   Universality is inescapable / Claudio Gnoli, Rick Szostak = (ASIST annual meeting. 2014. SIGCR session) = (Advances in classification research online. 2014) — University of Washington <> : 2014-

[Gno15]   The value added of organized information : from Floridi to Bennett = (Knowledge organization: making a difference : ISKO UK biennial conference : London : 2015.07.13-14) — ISKO UK <>

[Des16]   Expressing dependence relationships in the Integrative Levels Classification using OWL / Rodrigo De Santis, Claudio Gnoli = Knowledge Organization for a sustainable world: challenges and perspectives for cultural, scientific, and technological sharing in a connected society: proceedings International ISKO Conference. 14: Rio de Janeiro 2016.09.27-29. P 368-375 / José Augusto Chaves Guimarães, Suellen Oliveira Milani, Vera Dodebei : ed' — Ergon : Würzburg : 2016

[Gno16]   Classifying phenomena / Claudio Gnoli

[Szo16]   Interdisciplinary knowledge organization / Rick Szostak, Claudio Gnoli, María José López-Huertas — Springer : Cham : 2016

[Led17]   Indexing KOSs in BARTOC by a disciplinary and a phenomenon-based classification: preliminary considerations / Andreas Ledl, Claudio Gnoli = Faceted classification today : theory, technology and end users : proceedings of the International UDC Seminar, 14-15 September 2017, London, United Kingdom. P 109-117 / Aida Slavic, Claudio Gnoli : ed' — Ergon : Würzburg : 2017

[Gno18]   Phenomenon-based vs. disciplinary classification: possibilities for evaluating and for mapping / Claudio Gnoli, Andreas Ledl, Ziyoung Park, Marcin Trzmielewski = Challenges and opportunities for knowledge organization in the digital age : proceedings of the Fifteenth International ISKO Conference, 9-11 July 2018, Porto, Portugal. P 653-661 / Fernanda Ribeiro, Maria Elisa Cerveira : ed' – Ergon : Würzburg : 2018 [won the Ingetraut Dahlberg Best Paper Award]

[Trz18]   Un défi de recherche interdisciplinaire: comparaison d'une classification disciplinaire avec une classification basée sur les phénomènes / Marcin Trzmielewski, Claudio Gnoli = Carnet DLIS. 2018.09.13 = (Hypothèses)

[Gno19]   Dimensional analysis of subjects: indexing KOSs in BARTOC by phenomena, perspectives, documents and collections / Claudio Gnoli, Ziyoung Park, Andreas Ledl = (ISKO Low Countries Conference. 1: Bruxelles 2019.06.21-22)

[Trz19]   Une classification interdisciplinaire pour l'échange et la médiation des données ouvertes de la recherche / Marcin Trzmielewski, Claudio Gnoli = (ISKO France. 2019: Montpellier 2019.10.09-11)

[Bin20]   Integrative Levels Classification as a networked KOS: a SKOS representation of ILC2 / Ceri Binding, Claudio Gnoli, Gabriele Merli, Marcin Trzmielewski, Douglas Tudhope = Knowledge organization at the interface: proceedings International ISKO Conference. 16: Aalborg 2020.07. P 49-58 / Marianne Lykke, Tanja Svarre, Mette Skov, Daniel Martínez-Ávila : ed' = (Advances in knowledge organization. 17) — Ergon: Baden-Baden 2020

[Gno20]   Integrative Levels Classification (ILC) / Claudio Gnoli = ISKO encyclopedia of knowledge organization / Birger Hjørland, Claudio Gnoli: ed' – < 2020-

[Mac20]   Can an ontologically-oriented KO do without concepts? / Luís M Machado, Graça Simões, Claudio Gnoli, Renato Souza = Knowledge organization at the interface: proceedings International ISKO Conference. 16: Aalborg 2020.07. P 502-506 / Marianne Lykke, Tania Svarre, Mette Skov, Daniel Martínez-Ávila : ed' = (Advances in knowledge organization. 17) — Ergon: Baden-Baden 2020

[Par20]   The second edition of the Integrative Levels Classification / Ziyoung Park, Claudio Gnoli, Daniele Pascal Morelli = (NKOS Workshop at DCMI 2019: Seoul 2019.09.25) » Journal of data and information science. 5: 2020. 1. P 39-50

[Alm21a]   Afirmando Pereira: a Integrative Levels Classification na representação do assunto ficcional / Patrícia de Almeida, Claudio Gnoli = Organização do conhecimento no horizonte 2030: desenvolvimento sustentável e saúde: atas do V Congresso ISKO Espanha-Portugal. P 605-616 / Carlos Guardado da Silva, Jorge Revez, Luis Corujo: ed' — Universidade de Lisboa. Centro de estudos Clássicos, Colibri: 2021

[Alm21b]   Fiction in a phenomenon-based classification / Patrícia de Almeida, Claudio Gnoli = Cataloguing and classification quarterly. 59: 2021. 5. P 477-491

[Bin21]   Migrating a complex classification scheme to the Semantic Web: expressing the Integrative Levels Classification using SKOS RDF / Ceri Binding, Claudio Gnoli, Douglas Tudhope = Journal of documentation. 77: 2021. 4. P 926-945

[Gno21a]   Transforming the Integrative Levels Classification to SKOS: representation of numbers, dates and people via parallel facets / Claudio Gnoli, Douglas Tudhope = NKOS Consolidated Workshop. 2021. [Presentation 5]: online: 2021.09.22-23

[Gno21b]   Levels of reality as a fertile ontological model: invited speech: 2021.05.28 = (Seminarios de organização do conhecimento. 2021: História e memória da organização do conhecimento no Brasil / Instituto brasileiro de informação en ciência e tecnologia, Universidade federal do Rio de Janeiro) » (History and memory of the knowledge organization / Gustavo Saldanha, Tatiana de Almeida: ed')

[Gno21c]   Faceted classifications as linked data: a logical analysis / Claudio Gnoli = (NKOS Consolidated Workshop: 2020.09.09-10) » Knowledge organization. 48: 2021. 3. P 213-218

[Gno22]   Taiga penguins: expressing existence and fictionality in a phenomenon-based classification / Claudio Gnoli, Patrícia de Almeida, Luís Miguel Oliveira Machado, Riccardo Ridi = Knowledge organization across disciplines, domains, services and technologies: proceedings of the Seventeenth International ISKO Conference, 6-8 July 2022 Aalborg, Denmark. P 101-110 / Marianne Lykke, Tanja Svarre, David Haynes, Mette Skov, Martin Thellefsen, Daniel Martínez-Ávila: ed' — Ergon: Baden-Baden: 2022 [winner of conference Best Paper Award]

[Par22]   Collecting distributed KOSs and building meta information / Ziyoung Park = (NKOS Workshop. 2022.10.06-07: Seattle)

[Trz22]   From health professionals' discourse to KOS: representing the facets of allergy in the Integrative Levels Classification / Marcin Trzmielewski, Claudio Gnoli = (NKOS Workshop. 2022.10.06-07: Seattle)


References to the present project

[Beg09]  Classification theory / Clare Beghtol = Encyclopedia of library and information sciences # 3' ed'. P 1045-1060 – Taylor and Francis : London : 2009
[mentions that "the theory of integrative levels remained intriguing and became the basis for Dahlberg's Information Coding Classification (ICC). More recently, the Italian chapter of ISKO ... has embarked on a series of investigations into the theory of integrative levels and has begun to develop the Integrative Levels Classification (ILC). These investigations appear to be fruitful new directions in research on the structure(s) of knowledge organization classification.]

[Bos06]  Ontologies, different reasoning strategies, different logics, different kinds of knowledge representation: working together / Mela Bosch = Knowledge organization. 33: 2006. 3. P 153-159

[Bos07]  Entre la heurística y la hermenéutica: las competencias y actitud de los profesionales de la información para la web emergente / Mela Bosch = (Firmas) – Fundación ciencias de la documentación <> : 2007.03.06-
[quoting Gnoli & Poli 2004, remarks how documentary languages can be either discipline-oriented or ontologically oriented, and suggests that the latter is an hermeneutical approach.]

[Bro15]  Essential classification / Vanda Broughton # 2 — Facet : 2015
[mentions the ILC project as an attempt of phenomenon-based classification]

[Bro23]  Facet analysis: the evolution of an idea / Vanda Broughton = Cataloging and classfication quarterly. 61: 2023. _ <>
[mentions ILC as heir of "the ideas originated by Austin in the CRG" and "another more complex and nuanced version of a faceted system that includes relationships among its facets"]

[Cou]  Comment, pourquoi une classification? Comment, pourquoi cette classification? / Philippe Cousson
[on an adaptation of UDC towards a system by phenomena (subjects) in a high school in Poitiers; last paragraph introduces the ILC project, noticing that all "auxiliary tables" are taken from the general schedule, and that resulting classmarks are quite long, but can be shortened by favourite classes]

[Fra17]   Ontologie-basierte kognitive Karten : von Coding Schemes zu Ontologien als Wissensorganisationssysteme für Digital Humanities / Ingo Frank = (WissOrg'17, December 2017, Berlin — <>)
[Abstract: Cognitive maps were introduced in order to modelcomplex social systems from the perspective of stakeholders. Common cognitive mapping is problematic because the causal factorsare not explicitly specified. Therefore it is often not clear whichkinds or types (actor, event, state, etc.) are involved and at what level(micro, meso, macro) the factors are located and to which domain(social, economic, political, historical, etc.) they have to be assigned.This article demonstrates how the representation of causal knowl-edge can be improved through the use of appropriate knowledgeorganization systems to build ontology-based fuzzy cognitive mapsor dynamic cognitive maps. The concrete example of the advance-ment of the CAMEO coding scheme towards the PLOVER ontologyillustrates the relevance of enhanced interdisciplinary collaborationbetween Digital Humanities and the Knowledge Organization. It isshown that the construction of cognitive maps requires an ontologyas knowledge organizatio n system that allows the modeling ofintegrative levels to represent causal factors from different domainsand their respective theory-dependence]

[Fra18]   Interdisciplinary research organization: superimposing linked library data, linked research information and research data with interdisciplinary knowledge organization / Ingo Frank = Challenges and opportunities for knowledge organization in the digital age : proceedings of the Fifteenth International ISKO Conference, 9-11 July 2018, Porto, Portugal. P 948-950 / Fernanda Ribeiro, Maria Elisa Cerveira : ed' – Ergon : Würzburg : 2018
[applied approach by phenomena and perspectives through the NeDiMAH Methods Ontology which "distinguishes between research goals and activities, research techniques, and research objects".]

[Gar11]  Knowledge organization and the ecology of sciences: complementary approaches towards meta-disciplinarity / Francisco Javier García Marco = (Ibersid : international conference on information and documentation systems. 16 : Saragosse : 2011.10.03-05)
[Unpublished paper. Discusses trends in knowledge organization, including the theory of integrative levels as a good principle though needing to be complemented by others, especially for human sciences. Suggests that disciplines should be treated as facets, similarly to how ILC actually does. Abstract: "Relations among disciplines are no more the exception or an aim and have become the norm. The knowledge ecology is exploding and we need to rethink the proposals of knowledge organization to clasify this reality and transform it in a navigable and searchable environment. First the main historical approaches to interdisciplinarity in our discipline are reviewed, from the change of perspective invented by Ranganathan to modern approaches, attending especially to the ideas of Dahlberg. Two approches are carefully studied: a) distinguishing between center and periphery in disciplinary environments of practice and study; and b) including discipline as the six facet or perspective in a world of science that is increasingly focused on solving problems combining all the possible disciplinary approches".]

[Gre08]  Relationships in knowledge organization / Rebecca Green = Knowledge organization. 35: 2008. n 2-3. P 150-159
[observes that dependence relationships of IL theory [Gno07a] "possess some characteristics of paradigmatic relationships [...] but lack others"]

[Hoe07]   GFO-Bio: a biomedical core ontology / Robert Hoehndorf, Frank Loebe, Roberto Poli, Heinrich Herre, Janet Kelso = Applied ontology. 1: 2007. _
[refers to IL theory as "another basic means addressing the organization of domain categories. Moreover, distinct levels are themselves related in particular ways ..."]

[Kos17]   Mapping perspectival ambiguity in bioethics : revisiting the viewpoint warrant / Denis Kos, Sonia Špiranec, S., Ante Čović = Challenges and opportunities for knowledge organization in the digital age : proceedings of the Fifteenth International ISKO Conference, 9-11 July 2018, Porto, Portugal. P 959-961 / Fernanda Ribeiro, Maria Elisa Cerveira : ed' – Ergon : Würzburg : 2018
[This poster proposes that ethical issues, as one of the most ambiguous areas of study, are central to studies of perspectival ambiguity which remains a key challenge of transdisciplinary knowledge organization, and proposes methodologies to approach the resolution of these challenges.]

[LaB06]  [Review of] New review of hypermedia and multimedia. Volume 12 issue 1: Knowledge [organization] systems and services / Kathryn La Barre = Knowledge organization. 33: 2006. 4. P 219-220
[includes Gno06b, saying that they "champion the continuing usefulness of expressive notation in digital environments for query processing, browsing and collocation – in sharp contrast to those who feel that this type of notation is an artifact no longer useful in digital environments"]

[Lop07]   Gestión del conocimiento multidimensional en los sistemas de organización del conoscimiento / María José López-Huertas = (La interdisciplinariedad y la transdisciplinariedad en la organización del conoscimiento científico = Interdisciplinarity and transdisciplinarity in the organization of scientific knowledge : actas del VIII Congreso ISKO-España: León, 18, 19 y 20 de Abril de 2007). P 1-26 / Blanca Rodríguez Bravo, M'a Luisa Alvite Díez : ed – Universidad de León. Secretariado de Publicaciones: 2007
[see The León manifesto]

[Lop08]   Some current research questions in the field of knowledge organization. The concepts of facet and phenomenon in dealing with interdisciplinarity / María José López-Huertas = Knowledge organization. 35: 2008. 2-3. P 125-126

[Mac19]   Entre a organização do que é conhecido e o conhecimento da sua organização : um estudo comparativo entre as abordagens ontológicas da Integrative Levels Classification (ILC) e da Basic Formal Ontology (BFO) : projeto de tese de doutoramento em ciência da informação [conference presentation] / Luís Miguel Oliveira Machado ; Maria da Graça de Melo Simões, Maurício Barcellos Almeida : orientadores = (EDiCiC. 2019 : Barcelona : 2019.11.09-11)

[Mac22]   Entre a organização do que é conhecido e o conhecimento da sua organização: um estudo comparativo entre as abordagens ontológicas da Integrative Levels Classification e da Basic Formal Ontology : tese de doutoramento em Ciências da informação apresentada à Faculdade de letras da Universidade de Coimbra / Luís Miguel Oliveira Machado ; Maria Manuel Borges, Mauricio Almeida, Daniel Martínez Ávila: orientadores – <> : 2022-
Abstract: An organization of knowledge compartmented into disciplines does not prove adequate for a scientific praxis that lacks interdisciplinary openness. A potential solution involves a shift from an epistemological to an ontological focus on modulating new knowledge organization systems (KOS). An ontological classification, of beings rather than knowledge, will focus on what, from the outset, is common to the various domains – the reality. At this juncture it is necessary to distinguish how knowledge is acquired and grounded from how reality is constituted and structured. This starting point involves an ancient controversy referred to as the question of universal cognition. A sustained position on this question is necessary for the consistent development of ontologically based KOS with the potential to better serve interdisciplinary practice. The aim is to contribute to clarify the ontological approach by contextualizing it in relation to universal cognition and concepts as units of knowledge of KOS, empirically complementing the study with a comparison between the ontological approaches of two KOS: Integrative Levels Classification (ILC) and Basic Formal Ontology (BFO). We aim to: i. schematizes the requirements of an ontological system; ii. present an overview of the universal cognition issue; iii. identify the main modes of existence attributed to concepts and their suitability to SOC units; iv. characterize ILC and BFO ontological approaches; v. systematizes recommendations to help modeling ontological KOS. To fulfill these objectives the analytical hermeneutic-dialectical and comparative methods were used. We concluded that an ontological KOS starts from an ontological analysis, i.e., a categorization of existing entity types that can be objectively subsumed under distinguishable categories. The resulting system may not rigorously define the entities it incorporates and the relationships between them, as happens in ILC. In ILC the integration of the epistemological dimension is explicitly sought, and the naturalness of its classes is expressed only implicitly. The concepts continue to be understood as elementary pieces of KOS, with a formulation very similar to that of Dahlberg. In BFO, not only is it explicit its concern to contain only natural classes, but concepts are only understood as cognitive tools for accessing reality. The system, in addition to rigorous definitions, results from rigorous ontological and an adequacy to reality outside itself. These are the characteristics of an ontological model that distinguishes itself from systems with more permissive approaches, derived from the non-rigorous definition of its constituents or from the non-application of the aforementioned rigorous philosophical analysis. Within the scope of KOS, the inadequacy of the psychological interpretation of concepts became evident, given their individual nature as mental entities. From the linguistic perspective, concepts are commonly interpreted as labels for their meanings, which are associated with the epistemological reading. In the latter, if its scope does not promote the separation between uniquely intentional objects and others of a different nature, its application to the development of ontological KOS will be problematic. Different specifications concerning the nature of reality are imposed by different epistemic positions. It was possible to verify a lowest common denominator for this reality. Whether the positions are considered realist, nominalist or conceptualist, directly or indirectly, the support of hu man perceptions is placed on something independent of them. Despite the potential imperfections of human perceptions, they will not be simply, or solely, about themselves. In this context, five recommendations are proposed to help modulate ontological SOC: i. provide precise and ontologically consistent definitions of the classes to be included; ii. clearly differentiate classes from their particular instances; iii. classify based on intrinsic traits belonging to the respective entities; iv. not represent t he data of a particular database, but the types of entities existing in the domain to which the data report; v. use cognitive representations as a means to represent existing entities in the respective domain and not as an element to be represented. These recommendations are intended as a starting point for future development and not as a panacea for the issues involved. The present thesis does not intend to be a complete or definitive answer to the addressed question, but it is expected to have enough deta il, so that, in the context of Information Science, the ontological approach is better understood and seen as a viable alternative to epistemological one.

[Moh17]   Theoritical [sic] approaches in developments of library classification systems / G Movahedian, M Cheshmeh Sohrabi = (National studies on librarianship and information organization [Iran]. 27: 2017. 4) – <>
[Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the theories and theoretical studies in the field of library classifications and historical context of them in order to identify the approaches and developments in the field of classification. Methodology/Approach: The method of research was literature review and investigation of the theory of classifications. Results: The main theories in the designing of library classification systems that have been proposed include: Theory of Literary Warrant, Theory of scientific and educational consensus, Theory of phenomenon based knowledge organization classification, theory of integrative levels, Theory of Evolutionary Order, Information Coding Classification, and Universal Binary Classification. Conclusion: Current approaches in the knowledge organization have been shifted from static classification to dynamic, from universe of knowledge to universe of concepts and from deductive approaches to inductive approaches.]

[Mon22]   Power of position : classification and the biodiversity sciences / Robert D Montoya — MIT Press
[describes the approach of ILC and related research as "a static understanding of external phenomena (consistent enough, in practice, that the organization of all knowledge can perpetually be conformed to this schematic)" which could hardly follow the changing concepts of biological taxonomy. His qualification of "reductionist approaches" seems to be an odd reference to emergentism, which is just the opposite. He believes that such approaches "overlook the socially situated, culturally defined unfolding of our knowledge production practices", although the latter are not denied in ILC theoretical premises.]

[Mor18]   A representação do conhecimento em espaços multidimensionais: uma investigação de princípios teóricos a partir de autores fundacionais da organização do conhecimento : tese de doutorado apresentada ao Programa de pós-graduação da Universidade Federal Fluminense como requisito parcial para obtenção do título de doutora em ciência da informação / Rosana Portugal Tavares de Moraes ; Maria Luiza de Almeida Campos : orientadora – Universidad Federal Fluminense < Tese%20Rosana%20Portugal%20Tavares%20de%20Moraes%20.pdf> : 2018
[reviews classification by phenomena and ILC]

[Mor19]   A representação do conhecimento em espaços multidimensionais e a contribução teórica de autores fundacionais / Rosana Portugal Tavares de Moraes, Maria Luiza de Almeida Campos = (ENANCIB. 20: Florianópolis: 2019.10.21.25) — <>
[compares Gnoli's dimensional analysis with Brown, Richardson, Bliss and Ranganathan's work]

[Mor20]   A atualidade do pensamento de Henry Evelyn Bliss e a organização do conhecimento multidimensional / Rosana Portugal Tavares de Moraes, Maria Luiza de Almeida Campos = Scire. 26: 2020. 2. P 59-68 — <>
[discusses Bliss as well as faceted classification, phenomenon-based classification and integrative levels]

[Mor22]   Considerações quanto à organização e à rewpresentação do conhecimento em ambientes multidimensionais / Rosana Portugal Tavares de Moraes = Teorias e domínios emergentes em organização do conhecimento. P 21-34 / Rosali Fernandez de Souza, Luana Sales, Gustavo Saldanha : organizadores — IBICT : Rio de Janeiro : 2022 <>
[discusses CRG research and ILC project]

[San21]   Correspondência de intercâmbio científico no arquivo familiar de António de Barros Machado e Dora Lustig: estudo de organização e representação de informação [dissertation, Mestrado em ciências da documentação e informação] / Catarina Augusta da Silva Santos — Universidade de Lisboa <> : 2021.09-
[proposes indexing of archival documents by phenomena and perspectives based on an unpublished example with ILC]

[Sla08]  On classification, phenomena and free faceted classification / Aida Slavic, Bob Bater = (ISKO UK : a blog space of the British chapter of ISKO) – <>

[Szo07a]  Interdisciplinarity and the classification of scholarly documents by phenomena, theories, and methods / Rick Szostak = (La interdisciplinariedad y la transdisciplinariedad en la organización del conoscimiento científico = Interdisciplinarity and transdisciplinarity in the organization of scientific knowledge : actas del VIII Congreso ISKO-España: León, 18, 19 y 20 de Abril de 2007). P 469-477 / Blanca Rodríguez Bravo, M'a Luisa Alvite Díez : ed – Universidad de León. Secretariado de Publicaciones: 2007
[see The León manifesto]

[Szo07b]  Interdisciplinarity and the classification of scholarly documents / Rick Szostak = ISKO Italy-UniMIB meeting. 3: 2007.06.22. [1] – <>

[Szo08]  Classification, interdisciplinarity, and the study of science / Rick Szostak = Journal of documentation. 64: 2008. 3. P 319-332

[Ten08]  Epistemology, theory, and methodology in knowledge organization : toward a classification, metatheory, and research framework / Joseph T Tennis = Knowledge organization. 35: 2008. n 2-3. P 102-112
[mentions discussion in Gnoli 2004b about philosophy as a source of knowledge organization]

[Vic08]  The structure of subject classifications for document retrieval / Brian Vickery – <> : 2008
[applauds the ILC draft scheme, though suggesting a partially different approach, combining phenomena with human activities]

[Wil13]   Rigorous facet analysis as the basis for constructing knowledge organization schemes of all kinds / Leonard Will = (Knowledge organization: pushing the boundaries : ISKO UK biennial conference, 8th-9th July 2013, London) – <> : 20
[section 3.4 discusses non-disciplinary facets in ILC]

[Yok23]   知識の組織化システムとしての統合的レベル分類とGnoliの存在論 = The Integrative Levels Classification as a knowledge organization system and Gnoli's ontology / Mikiko Yokoyama = Journal of Japan society for library and information science. 69. 2. P 85-100
[original English abstract: The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between the Integrative Levels Classification (ILC) as a knowledge organization system (KOS) and Claudio Gnoli's ontology (pluralism), based on a literature analysis. The results of the examination in this paper reveal two things about the relationship between the Integrative Levels Classification and Gnoli’s ontology. One is that while Gnoli's ontology can indeed order all objects of research in the Integrative Levels Classification, it is not the only such ontology. In other words, it means that even if one admits abstract entities, the required abstract entities are not necessarily entities such as mentefacts. The other is that Gnoli’s ontology can indeed also assess the status of knowledge as objects of study, although even in this regards, such an ontology is not limited to Gnoli's.]


References on integrative levels classification / [Claudio Gnoli, Hong Mei ; Keiichi Kawamura, Thomas D Wilson : contributions] — ISKO Italia <> : 2005.04.27 - 2023.09.27 -     [ref.htm until 2011.07.19]